If you have become the owner of a plot of land and want to build a house on it, you need to remember that land is not only a landscape, but also a complex geophysical object that has certain aggregategeometric, physical-mechanical and chemical properties, which largely determine the capabilities of the master plan.
The master plan is the main construction tool. Without it, rational land use is impossible. The development of the master plan is preceded by the stage of topographical surveying and engineering-geological investigations. It is at this stage that we learn everything about the geometry and topography of the site, its boundaries, the reference to the state coordinate system, the hydrology of the soil, its load-bearing properties, underground communications and much more.
Topographic surveying includes surveying of objects both on the surface of the earth, as well as aerial and underground communications, and consists of the following stages:
- connection to the state geodetic network (this is a mandatory requirement, as a result of working with state cartographic and geodetic funds), and if the geodetic points are far away, additional measurements or the use of satellite positioning systems;
- horizontal survey – determination of the planned position of local objects: buildings, structures, coatings, types of vegetation, individual trees, i.e. any point on the topoplane must be confirmed by measurements;
- vertical survey – determination of the height position of coatings, communications, reflection of the natural relief and its man-made forms;
- surveying and coordination of underground communications – determination of the position with the help of pathfinders, collection and systematization of materials of executive surveys and schemes, coordination of the completeness of the display and location of communications with operating organizations;
- camera processing – creating a topographic or combined plan (in the case of using special programs – a digital model of the terrain).
Currently, traditional (manual) and modern (electronic) technologies of topographical surveying are used.
With manual technology, measurements are carried out using optical instruments and steel tape measure, measurements are processed using a calculator, the results are recorded on paper, as a result of which errors occur that affect the quality of the topographic material: errors in taking readings, journal entries, errors in entering information during calculations. When drawing a plan, distortions also occur, and finally, the base on which the plan is applied (paper, Mylar, plywood or aluminum tablet) is subject to deformations as a result of changes in temperature, humidity, constant use, etc.
When using modern technology, the operator points the electronic device at the reflector and presses several buttons (to take a reading, enter the picket number, picket code, record information in the device’s memory). Note that the count will be taken if the device is pointed incorrectly. After shooting, the device is connected to a computer, and the measurement results are recorded in its memory. With the help of a computer program, the measurements are mathematically processed and a topo plan is created in electronic form – a digital model of the area.
The use of modern electronic and laser measuring equipment, computers and specialized software and new methods of organizing work allows you to avoid errors and obtain high-quality material in a short time. Given that the same model is used by bay area siding contractors, errors in linking objects to the terrain are excluded.
Engineering and geological searches
Physico-mechanical and chemical properties of the underlying soils are determined with the help of engineering and geological investigations. The most important properties of soils are strength, plasticity, flowability, moisture permeability, hygroscopicity (ability to retain moisture). In most cases, several exploratory wells to a depth of 5-6 m are enough to determine the quality of the soil. It should be mentioned separately that such measures help to find out the level of groundwater. Their presence and standing height significantly affect the soil characteristics. The study of these properties makes it possible to best calculate the parameters of the foundation and the building as a whole, its location, to determine the types and volumes of reclamation works, to predict sliding and subsidence processes.
Determination of geological properties of soils is carried out only after their extraction by drilling, excavation, etc., as well as complex laboratory analysis of the obtained samples. Obtaining reliable geological information requires not only modern equipment and software, but also the participation of experienced and qualified specialists who are able to build a geological model of the site as close to reality as possible from individual fragments. An important role is played by determining the spatial coordinates of geological formations. Locations of geological formations must be shown on topographic plans.
After carrying out topographical and geological investigations, it is finally possible to proceed with the development of the master plan and design. that is, determining where and what structures will be located (house, bathhouse, garage, gazebo, patio), where will be the garden, lawn, flower beds, children’s and sports grounds, pond, swimming pool, what drainage system (gravity discharge, slopes, ditches, trenches, pits or deep drainage using drainage pipes with discharge of the collected water into an open ditch or well saturation).
instead of a conclusion
Electronic technologies and modern work methods- more science-intensive, require “intellectual” equipment and give fast and high-quality results. If earlier they talked about the accuracy of the position of the contour + 10-20 cm, now it is possible to achieve + 2-5 cm. It is in your power to make your home a place of peace and joy, and not a source of unnecessary tension and additional worries. You should be sure that at any time of the year you can walk along the dry paths of your garden, sit with friends on a cozy patio, cut beautiful flowers, and children can play safely on their playground. For this, from the very beginning, you need to systematically approach the solution of all problems related to the construction and improvement of your site. Don’t trust the land to random people. The land on which your house will stand is the basis of your well-being, and it will thank you if you treat it with love.