Potential complications of type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes, often known as type 2 diabetes mellitus, is a common yet dangerous disease. It’s a problem with the way your body controls and uses sugar as a source of energy. When blood sugar levels are excessively high and the body is unable to utilize insulin properly, this condition develops. High blood sugar levels can damage blood vessels over time, resulting in major health consequences throughout the body.

The pancreas produces the hormone called insulin which helps cells to properly use glucose which is the body’s main energy source. Type 2 diabetes happens when the body cannot respond to insulin correctly and over many years insulin production decreases.

Potential complications of type 2 diabetes

Glucose builds up in the blood as a result of your body’s failure to respond to insulin appropriately, causing people to have high blood sugar levels. High blood sugar levels can cause both acute and chronic health problems. Acute health issues are those that occur suddenly and without warning, such as hyperglycemia (hypers) or hypoglycemia (hypoglycemia) (hypos). Chronic complications, on the other hand, are long-term problems that impact your heart or kidneys and can range from kidney disease to vision loss and nerve damage. Here are some potential complications that you may experience when you have type 2 diabetes:

  • Heart disease and stroke – Diabetes patients are more likely than non-diabetic patients to have heart disease or stroke. They may even develop heart disease at an early age, and having diabetes enhances their risk. The neurons and blood arteries that control the heart might be damaged by high blood sugar levels. Heart disease can result from this injury. Diabetes patients are also more likely to have additional heart disease risk factors, such as Coronary Artery Disease, it is the most common form of heart disease and other risk factors include:
  • high blood pressure
  • high levels of LDL cholesterol, also known as “bad” cholesterol
  • high triglycerides — a type of fat in the blood
  • being overweight or having obesity
  • Vision loss – The majority of diabetics have eye problems as a result of excessive blood sugar levels, which damage the blood vessels in the eyes. A person with diabetes may develop temporary eyesight loss in the short term. This is due to elevated blood sugar levels influencing fluid levels or edema in the ocular tissues. If a person’s blood sugar is kept under control and in a healthy range, his or her eyesight will ultimately return. Damage to blood vessels over time can lead to bleeding, scarring, and dangerously high pressure. Conditions that can lead to a long term damage may include the following:
  • diabetic retinopathy
  • diabetic macular edema
  • glaucoma
  • cataracts
  • Oral health problems – Diabetic persons are also more likely to suffer oral health problems. Diabetes has a variety of effects on the mouth if it is not addressed. The most prevalent oral health problem associated with diabetes is periodontal disease. This is a dangerous illness that affects the gums, the tissues that support the teeth in place, and the bones. Infection can cause blood sugar levels to rise, making it more difficult to manage. Poor blood sugar control can raise the risk of gum problems, and infection can also cause blood sugar levels to rise, making it more difficult to manage. Other ways that diabetes can affect the mouth are the following:
  • producing less saliva, causing the mouth to feel dry and increasing the risk of cavities
  • inflamed and bleeding gums
  • higher susceptibility to infections inside the mouth
  • slower wound healing
  • Skin Conditions – This is the first visible sign of having diabetes. High blood sugar can result in dehydration, inflammation and poor circulation that can impact the skin and damage it. Learn how to check for skin problems, if you notice any symptoms for skin problems you should contact your doctor right away. Skin conditions that may occur for people with type 2 diabetes can include:
  • necrobiosis lipoidica
  • acanthosis nigricans
  • digital sclerosis
  • blisters
  • skin infections
  • diabetic ulcers
  • diabetic dermopathy
  • eruptive xanthomatosis
  • granuloma annulare
  • xanthelasma
  • dry and itchy skin
  • Neuropathy – Neuropathy refers to nerve damage and diabetic neuropathy is damage that occurs because of diabetes. If blood sugar levels are not managed in the long run, fats in the blood can damage the nerves in the body. These are the different types of neuropathies that a type 2 diabetic patient can have:

  • peripheral neuropathy
  • autonomic neuropathy
  • thoracic/lumbar radiculopathy
  • mononeuropathies
  • Kidney disease – Diabetic people with type 2 diabetes are more likely to develop renal disease. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), which causes the kidney to slow down and lose function, affects one in every three persons with diabetes. Kidney failure is caused by type 2 diabetes, which develops when high blood sugar levels destroy the kidneys. Nephrons are blood veins in the kidneys and small filters in the kidneys. People with diabetes are more likely to develop high blood pressure, which damages the kidneys even more.


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